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The working principle of CNC machine tools

  • Author:Henry
  • Source:Www.xy-global.com
  • Release on :2018-09-17
The working principle of CNC machine tools:

(1) The programmed program is sent to the numerical control device through a keyboard or an input machine on the operation panel.
(2) After the numerical control device performs a series of processing on the received signal, the processing result is distributed in the form of a pulse signal: one is to issue an execution command such as feeding to the feed servo system, and the other is to issue a command to the programmable controller. S, M, T and other command signals.
(3) After the programmable controller receives the command signals such as S, M, T, etc., the machine tool body is controlled to execute these commands immediately, and the execution of the machine body is fed back to the numerical control device in real time.
(4) Immediately after receiving the feed execution command, the servo system drives each coordinate axis (feed mechanism) of the machine body to accurately perform displacement according to the instruction requirements, and automatically completes the machining of the workpiece.
(5) During the displacement of each coordinate axis, the detection feedback device quickly feeds back the measured value of the displacement to the numerical control device for comparison with the command value, and then issues a compensation execution command to the servo system at an extremely fast speed until the measured value is The command values ​​match.
(6) In the process of displacement of each coordinate axis, if the phenomenon of “overtravel” occurs, the limit device can send some signals of the overtravel to the programmable controller or directly to the numerical control device, and the numerical control system In the aspect, an alarm signal is sent through the display, and on the other hand, a stop execution command is issued to the feed servo system to implement overtravel protection.

In summary, the working principle of the numerical control machine tool can be summarized as follows: the computer in the numerical control device performs a series of processing on the information recorded by the input device in the digital and character encoding manner, and then through the servo system and the programmable controller The machine tool spindle and feed actuators issue commands, and the machine tool body follows the instructions and cooperates with the detection feedback device to perform various actions required for the workpiece machining, such as the trajectory, displacement and displacement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Automatically control the speed and other requirements to complete the machining of the workpiece.

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