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processing of eletroplating

  • Author:Coolidge
  • Source:www.diecastingpartsupplier.com
  • Release on :2018-08-31
Process
Electroplating of a metal (Me) with copper in a copper sulfate bath
See also: Electrotyping and Electroforming

The cations associate with the anions in the solution. This cations are reduced at the cathode to deposit in the metallic, zero valence state. For example, for copper plating, in an acid solution, copper is oxidized at the anode to Cu2+ by losing two electrons. The Cu2+ associates with the anion SO2−
4 in the solution to form copper(II) sulfate. At the cathode, the Cu2+ is reduced to metallic copper by gaining two electrons. The result is the effective transfer of copper from the anode source to a plate covering the cathode.

The plating is most commonly a single metallic element, not an alloy. However, some alloys can be electrodeposited, notably brass and solder.

Many plating baths include cyanides of other metals (such as potassium cyanide) in addition to cyanides of the metal to be deposited. These free cyanides facilitate anode corrosion, help to maintain a constant metal ion level and contribute to conductivity. Additionally, non-metal chemicals such as carbonates and phosphates may be added to increase conductivity.

When plating is not desired on certain areas of the substrate, stop-offs are applied to prevent the bath from coming in contact with the substrate. Typical stop-offs include tape, foil, lacquers, and waxes.[4]

The ability of a plating to cover uniformly is called throwing power; the better the throwing power the more uniform the coating