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The basic characteristics of the electrolyte

  • Author:naky
  • Source:www.diecastingpartsupplier.com
  • Release on:2015-10-23
An electrolyte solute dissolved in a solution refers to the solvent completely or partially dissociate into ions in solution. Solute is the corresponding electrolyte. Electrolyte whether a substance is not absolute. The same substance in different solvents, can exhibit completely different properties for example HCl in water is electrolytes, but was a non-electrolyte in benzene; dextrose in water, non-electrolyte, while it is in liquid HF in the electrolyte so when it comes to the electrolyte solvent in general must not leave the fully dissociated electrolytes. called strong electrolytes, partially dissociated electrolyte called weak electrolytes. this classification is only for the convenience of the issues discussed, and does not reflect the nature of the electrolyte. the reason is the strength of the electrolyte with the environment variable, such as acetic acid in water weak electrolyte, compared to the strong electrolyte .LiCl and KI are ionic crystals in liquid ammonia in water is a strong electrolyte, and in acetic acid or acetone have become weak electrolytes in electrochemical most widely used electrolyte solution an electrolyte solution, this section focuses on the essential characteristics of the aqueous electrolyte solution.

Positive and negative ions
Between the electrolyte ions in solution, in addition to having the kind of interaction between the outside as neutral molecules, according to Coulomb's law, there are electrostatic interactions, namely ion mutually exclusive homosexual, heterosexual ions attract each other by the kinetic theory 7 power is inversely proportional mutual attraction between two neutral molecules with approximately the distance between the two particles, and inversely proportional to the square of the two opposite electrostatic attraction between ions but with the distance between the two ions. this shows that the neutral force between the molecules is short-range force, and the electrostatic attraction between charged ions for long-range force. when more dilute electrolyte solution, the distance between ions far, a variety of short-range forces acting can be negligible, the long-range force, but can not be ignored. it is because of the presence of long-range electrostatic attraction between the opposite sex ions, so that the electrolyte solution even in very dilute still showing on the thermodynamic properties of the ideal solution for a large deviation. ionic electrostatic interactions strong in addition to the weak and the distance (concentration of the solution) ions between related, but also with the dielectric constant, ionic structure, size, charge, degree of solvation solvents and other factors related.

Coulomb attraction between positive and negative ions, it is possible to make them produce association of when oppositely charged ions close to a certain distance, if the electrostatic attraction between them will be far greater than the potential energy of the thermal motion of kinetic energy, the formation of ions in solution aggregates, such ion aggregates can be composed of two charged ions of the opposite sex the same ion pair, it can also be composed of three or more of the ions from the ion association ion clusters. Since the ions are not in solution stop movement, some of the ions present in aggregates of time may be short-lived. In a moment each solution has a number of ion association, while there are many aggregates decomposition. From a statistical point of view, the solution is always a certain the number of ion aggregates exist. aggregates are formed by the Coulomb force, which rely on chemical bonds and molecular form is different. Obviously a large number of charged ions in a relatively low dielectric constant solvent, among ion Coulomb larger gravity, thus The possibility of ion association also bigger. Because presence of aggregates as a whole in the solution and movement, so in a certain concentration of the electrolyte solution, each ion can not independence movement. For strong electrolytes, in Although the solution is fully ionized, but not completely dissociated. Obviously, this association with ion will affect the nature and number of ions in the electrolyte solution related.